proton torus
Nuclear structure of


= (half life = 10.80 min = 648 sec). Move mouse on image for proton picture.

Blue torus = 1 proton
Red torus  = 1 nuclear electron

Atomic number of neutron (0) = protons (1) - nuclear electron (1)

Spin = 1/2+

The neutron consists by a proton torus inside an electron torus. No quarks.
Inside nucleus the electron cannot falling out because two proton torus commonly use the 3 times bigger "glue" electron torus captured.
The gluons hypothetised by nuclear physicists are simply nuclear electrons.

When a neutron freed from a nucleus so there is no guide rail any more for electron, and accordingly electron can drop off from the single proton torus with half life of 10.8 minuts.
This may the reason why shell electron of hydrogen atom not falling in into nucleus.

Or else -in case of all other nuclei- the nucleus has negative electric charge in outer surface in consequence of nuclear "binding" electrons. This negative surface prevent shell electrons to fall into nucleus.

Click the photo for Hydrogen2 nucleus (= Deuterium)

Photon model of light         Neutron fake wiki
A protontórusz sugara

electron Hydrogen 1 nucleus



Neutron torus model. Neutron consists by a proton torus inside an elctron torus. Electron radius circa 3 times greater than proton radius. The electron can easily fall off from single proton. Inside nuclei two proton commonly use a nuclear electron, so electrons cannot fall off until protons lead them. Electron emission may occur at one of the end of nuclear (proton-electron) nanotube as b- decay. Quarks and gluons not exists.
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